The relationship of leadership style to education attainment and leadership training of retail managers in southwest Ohio

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Business Administration (DBA)

Committee Chair

Ken Knox

Committee Member

Charles Fenner

Committee Member

Beverly Smith


This study employed a quantitative research design utilizing a survey instrument to gather data related to the leadership style of leaders in the retail industry. The research evaluated the general concepts of the transformational leadership style, which includes personality and motivational concepts (Williams, Raffo, & Clark, 2018). This study utilized the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Form 5X), or the MLQ 5X, developed and validated by Bruce Avolio and Bernard Bass and widely accepted as the standard instrument to measure the level of transformational leadership style applied (Northouse, 2019). From the questionnaire, the study evaluated the relationship between the education level and the level of transformational leadership style implemented. The study also evaluated the relationship between organizational provided leadership training and the use of these leadership styles as well as a combination of the two variables. The survey was accessible online and provided anonymity to the participants. The population and sampling were from US-based retail store managers from the malls in the Southwestern Ohio area. This sample was random and based on the proximity to the primary location of the researcher. The data was statistically analyzed using regression analysis and multivariate regression analysis to determine the probability (p-value) compared to an alpha of 0.05. The coefficient of determination (r2) was used to determine the effect the independent variables (IV) have on the dependent variable (DV). An evaluation of the relationship when the variables are combined will look at the p-value of the F statistic to determine if the relationship is significant. The results indicated that each IV, as well as the combination of both IVs, had a statistically significant relationship to the DV.