The Impact of Human and Machine Adjuncts on Reshaping Higher Education Institutions in the Education 4.0 Era

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



Machine learning incorporating academic scholarship directly impacts tenured faculty, traditionally regarded as the authority on instructional quality and student learning. Dependence on Artificial Intelligence (AI)-generated tools such as Intelligent Tutoring Systems to share existing knowledge will lead Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to become further dependent on both human and machine adjuncts. The utilization of the external desk research method explored (a) how the increasing use of human and machine adjuncts will change the current HEI model, (b) how economic trends in HEIs support the automation of instructional delivery, and (c) how Intelligent Tutoring Systems will replace human instruction. It is argued that in the Education 4.0 era, AI-generated machine adjuncts will work in partnership with human adjuncts, necessitating whole-system reform focused on the HEI personnel structure, specifically tenured faculty.


School of Education

Academic Department

Doctoral Studies

Publication or Event Title

Northeast Business and Economics Association 2023

Author Manuscript


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